Income by Race: Average, Top One Percent, Median, and Inequalities

Written by:

On this page, find United States average individual income by race and ethnicity and median individual income by race and ethnicity in 2023. You'll also find the top 1% individual income by race and ethnicity and an income by race and ethnicity calculator (and visualization). Incomes are earned between January and December 2022.

Optionally, plot multiple races and ethnicities in the tool to visualize income inequality by race.

We have statistics for:

  • White Non-Hispanic
  • Hispanic or Latino of any Race
  • Black
  • Asian
  • American Indian
  • Pacific Islander
  • Two or More Races

Average, Median, and Top 1% Income by Race and Hispanic Origin

This table contains the average, median, and top 1% individual income for selected races and ethnicities. Country-wide, the average individual income was $69,029.61, the median income was $50,000.00, and the top 1% income was $407,500.00 in 2023.

Average IncomeMedian IncomeTop 1% Income
White Non-Hispanic$76,696.65$55,001.00$460,006.00
American Indian$49,669.55$38,000.00$259,606.00
Pacific Islander$58,322.87$48,000.00$300,786.00
Two or More Races$59,998.17$40,000.00$312,900.00
Hispanic or Latino of Any Race$47,581.55$35,001.00$230,008.00

Here's that data in graphical form – top 1% income, average income, and median individual income by race or ethnicity.

Income by race and ethnicity in the United States in 2023

Race and Ethnicity Income Visualization, Comparison, and Tool

Below is a calculator for income percentile by race and ethnicity. Enter race or ethnicity and income earned in full-year 2022, and we'll plot it against other earners in the same cohort. Additionally, you can visualize income inequality by race by adjusting the comparison field.

Income Percentile by Race and Ethnicity Methodology

This data uses 2023 IPUMS-CPS data to calculate incomes. See the income percentile calculator for more details and a description of my "worker" screen.

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles, J. Robert Warren, Daniel Backman, Annie Chen, Grace Cooper, Stephanie Richards, Megan Schouweiler, and Michael Westberry. IPUMS CPS: Version 11.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2023.

Workforce Size by Race

The next table shows the samples used in the calculation, and the weighted estimate of the workforce size by race and ethnicity:

Race/EthnicitySamplesEstimated Workers
White Non-Hispanic44,221106,395,029
American Indian7801,260,430
Pacific Islander412704,122
Two or More Races1,4243,066,956
Hispanic or Latino of Any Race15,80033,485,477

Interested in past data? Find previous editions here:



PK started DQYDJ in 2009 to research and discuss finance and investing and help answer financial questions. He's expanded DQYDJ to build visualizations, calculators, and interactive tools.

PK lives in New Hampshire with his wife, kids, and dog.

Don't Quit Your Day Job...

DQYDJ may be compensated by our partners if you make purchases through links. See our disclosures page. As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.
Sign Up For Emails
linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram