Average Income by State plus Median and Top 1%

Written by:
PK

In this post, find household income by state and individual income by state statistics for the United States in 2021. Find all your favorite summary statistics: average income by state for households or individual workers, plus the median income and top 1% income. It's the newest data to this point in 2022.

Income is pre-tax (gross) income earned between January and December 2020.

We also have aggregated research on household income and individual income.

Household Income by State in 2021

Household is the more important income measure, as total pooled household resources are the best input to total quality of life. While individual income is useful (and, often, interesting!) to compare, household is the more important measure.

Find our dedicated household income percentile post here.

Average Household Income by State

Average income is an important benchmark, but it is limited by the skew due to high earning households. In the United States, the average household income was $96,955.04 in 2021.

(That would be the 65th household income percentile on its own.)

Here's the average household income by state in 2021:

StateAverage Income
Alabama$80,098.86
Alaska$95,705.77
Arizona$93,563.15
Arkansas$73,595.58
California$109,260.14
Colorado$111,730.73
Connecticut$112,717.99
Delaware$88,015.52
District of Columbia$134,879.54
Florida$80,986.36
Georgia$89,679.25
Hawaii$100,865.14
Idaho$86,823.70
Illinois$105,406.38
Indiana$93,692.11
Iowa$89,448.32
Kansas$92,077.32
Kentucky$79,926.50
Louisiana$75,323.35
Maine$87,585.79
Maryland$130,850.25
Massachusetts$127,044.96
Michigan$98,869.62
Minnesota$112,222.51
Mississippi$66,127.66
Missouri$89,400.64
Montana$81,696.69
Nebraska$98,805.87
Nevada$83,588.38
New Hampshire$111,787.94
New Jersey$119,883.97
New Mexico$72,198.14
New York$101,402.76
North Carolina$83,726.98
North Dakota$87,614.50
Ohio$82,814.43
Oklahoma$76,735.96
Oregon$104,543.28
Pennsylvania$100,056.02
Rhode Island$100,468.74
South Carolina$83,231.97
South Dakota$90,680.44
Tennessee$80,185.14
Texas$96,468.32
Utah$107,811.18
Vermont$98,588.88
Virginia$114,811.15
Washington$106,549.53
West Virginia$75,856.35
Wisconsin$91,538.21
Wyoming$80,389.41

Median Household Income by State

Median household income means that half of all households earn more and half earn less – not accounting for households that make the exact median. It's the superior statistic... although the average is more popular when people ask questions.

Across the United States, the median household income was $67,463.00 in 2021. Here is the median household income by state:

StateMedian Income
Alabama$54,193
Alaska$74,509
Arizona$66,501
Arkansas$50,005
California$77,320
Colorado$82,427
Connecticut$78,481
Delaware$68,341
District of Columbia$87,539
Florida$57,333
Georgia$59,235
Hawaii$80,038
Idaho$66,235
Illinois$73,653
Indiana$66,200
Iowa$67,929
Kansas$72,695
Kentucky$55,761
Louisiana$50,079
Maine$64,054
Maryland$93,236
Massachusetts$86,000
Michigan$63,016
Minnesota$78,036
Mississippi$44,836
Missouri$62,000
Montana$56,180
Nebraska$72,099
Nevada$60,001
New Hampshire$88,130
New Jersey$85,110
New Mexico$50,489
New York$68,624
North Carolina$60,000
North Dakota$63,611
Ohio$60,000
Oklahoma$52,083
Oregon$76,000
Pennsylvania$70,002
Rhode Island$80,003
South Carolina$60,000
South Dakota$69,763
Tennessee$54,601
Texas$68,000
Utah$83,979
Vermont$67,345
Virginia$81,500
Washington$80,500
West Virginia$52,000
Wisconsin$66,900
Wyoming$65,002

Top 1% Household Income by State

The top 1% of income percentiles is roughly where our accuracy runs out – there aren't as many respondents up here, and there's more income dispersion. However, it's a good approximation for where the truly affluent household incomes begin per state.

In 2021, the overall top 1% threshold started at a household income of $504,420. Of course, take the exact numbers with a grain of salt, but here are the top 1% household income thresholds per state:

StateTop 1% Income
Alabama$442,591
Alaska$456,248
Arizona$540,600
Arkansas$433,300
California$515,587
Colorado$479,194
Connecticut$687,853
Delaware$388,050
District of Columbia$875,501
Florida$439,847
Georgia$531,500
Hawaii$386,306
Idaho$371,016
Illinois$539,488
Indiana$602,500
Iowa$375,222
Kansas$382,300
Kentucky$489,150
Louisiana$418,101
Maine$429,363
Maryland$668,139
Massachusetts$698,807
Michigan$577,027
Minnesota$600,000
Mississippi$420,011
Missouri$398,510
Montana$378,122
Nebraska$521,333
Nevada$414,413
New Hampshire$519,175
New Jersey$596,592
New Mexico$340,000
New York$501,916
North Carolina$397,504
North Dakota$482,312
Ohio$366,351
Oklahoma$430,201
Oregon$550,175
Pennsylvania$524,622
Rhode Island$510,300
South Carolina$459,779
South Dakota$393,466
Tennessee$421,589
Texas$573,737
Utah$418,069
Vermont$485,050
Virginia$679,365
Washington$464,017
West Virginia$418,431
Wisconsin$436,025
Wyoming$313,370

Household Income by State Methodology

All household income data comes from the United States Census Bureau's Annual ASEC survey. I use the harmonized data from the University of Minnesota. You can find more details in the average household income post.

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles, J. Robert Warren and Michael Westberry. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 9.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2021. https://doi.org/10.18128/D030.V9.0

Household Income Data Quality and Households Per State

This table shows the number of households in the survey per state, plus the number of households implied by those samples for 2021:

StateEstimated HouseholdsSamples
Alabama                    2,026,444          1,362
Alaska                       266,262             688
Arizona                    3,049,804          1,072
Arkansas                    1,264,827          1,132
California                  14,077,627          5,571
Colorado                    2,339,071             810
Connecticut                    1,433,568             604
Delaware                       394,643             680
District of Columbia                       347,007          1,140
Florida                    9,144,625          3,138
Georgia                    4,210,365          1,471
Hawaii                       486,723             908
Idaho                       716,910          1,065
Illinois                    4,978,839          1,703
Indiana                    2,717,689             955
Iowa                    1,324,132             713
Kansas                    1,137,924             779
Kentucky                    1,846,329             728
Louisiana                    1,848,427          1,565
Maine                       605,234             444
Maryland                    2,305,316             778
Massachusetts                    2,820,970          1,234
Michigan                    4,148,303          1,455
Minnesota                    2,289,002             818
Mississippi                    1,196,109          1,240
Missouri                    2,484,979             884
Montana                       466,325          1,055
Nebraska                       791,933             791
Nevada                    1,289,920             924
New Hampshire                       572,717             743
New Jersey                    3,372,771          1,157
New Mexico                       845,007          1,194
New York                    7,422,072          2,269
North Carolina                    4,440,706          1,604
North Dakota                       323,537             968
Ohio                    4,838,728          1,496
Oklahoma                    1,579,722          1,014
Oregon                    1,678,560          1,030
Pennsylvania                    5,118,648          1,578
Rhode Island                       461,925             539
South Carolina                    2,208,984          1,130
South Dakota                       367,692             671
Tennessee                    2,887,011          1,197
Texas                  10,598,162          3,594
Utah                    1,095,357             901
Vermont                       282,381             810
Virginia                    3,374,793          1,187
Washington                    3,059,999          1,217
West Virginia                       755,502          1,154
Wisconsin                    2,488,004             852
Wyoming                       241,552             838

Individual Income by State in 2021

While household income is the more important division, individual income shows how much one person earns – and is often more interesting. 

You can find more information on my worker screen in the individual income statistics post, but it's pretty generous.

Average Individual Income by State

The average individual income in America in 2021 was $63,214.03. As I mentioned in the household income section, median is a better measure – high earners skew the average. The average individual income would be roughly the 67th percentile of individual incomes.

Here's the average individual income by state (along with D.C.):

StateAverage Income
Alabama$58,611.27
Alaska$60,538.09
Arizona$60,634.05
Arkansas$53,631.90
California$66,178.32
Colorado$71,068.64
Connecticut$73,062.82
Delaware$55,468.77
District of Columbia$98,682.93
Florida$54,926.83
Georgia$60,619.12
Hawaii$56,033.83
Idaho$54,373.30
Illinois$68,243.82
Indiana$61,380.00
Iowa$58,334.19
Kansas$56,874.63
Kentucky$55,191.95
Louisiana$54,756.57
Maine$59,001.50
Maryland$81,951.64
Massachusetts$79,294.42
Michigan$68,269.80
Minnesota$71,120.73
Mississippi$48,341.73
Missouri$58,325.54
Montana$55,530.49
Nebraska$61,849.25
Nevada$54,079.68
New Hampshire$70,096.34
New Jersey$73,552.87
New Mexico$48,383.21
New York$65,663.37
North Carolina$59,187.85
North Dakota$57,855.56
Ohio$55,941.36
Oklahoma$52,715.12
Oregon$65,429.37
Pennsylvania$65,081.96
Rhode Island$65,076.21
South Carolina$57,371.83
South Dakota$58,216.79
Tennessee$55,310.98
Texas$61,156.52
Utah$62,089.45
Vermont$66,343.37
Virginia$72,252.36
Washington$66,786.03
West Virginia$56,032.76
Wisconsin$58,672.62
Wyoming$52,323.88

Median Individual Income by State

Once again, I'll repeat: median is the superior statistic (if less popular!). In 2021, the overall median individual income was $44,225. Here's how median individual incomes looked per state in 2021:

StateMedian Income
Alabama$40,650
Alaska$46,273
Arizona$42,000
Arkansas$38,001
California$45,001
Colorado$48,456
Connecticut$50,502
Delaware$41,031
District of Columbia$73,015
Florida$39,068
Georgia$40,023
Hawaii$45,690
Idaho$40,001
Illinois$48,000
Indiana$44,535
Iowa$43,000
Kansas$42,621
Kentucky$40,000
Louisiana$38,505
Maine$45,010
Maryland$56,745
Massachusetts$55,000
Michigan$44,380
Minnesota$51,003
Mississippi$32,950
Missouri$40,000
Montana$40,001
Nebraska$41,607
Nevada$39,159
New Hampshire$52,000
New Jersey$54,428
New Mexico$33,026
New York$45,018
North Carolina$42,801
North Dakota$45,000
Ohio$41,161
Oklahoma$37,101
Oregon$45,000
Pennsylvania$46,165
Rhode Island$50,000
South Carolina$41,129
South Dakota$44,000
Tennessee$40,000
Texas$40,751
Utah$45,000
Vermont$47,252
Virginia$50,005
Washington$50,025
West Virginia$39,293
Wisconsin$45,002
Wyoming$40,720

Top 1% Individual Income by State

And of course, we also need to show the top 1% individual incomes by state.

As with household income, be skeptical of these numbers – there aren't as many earners up here, and earnings are more spread out than with the rest of the distribution (still, they should be close).

In 2020, the top 1% individual income countrywide started at $357,552. Here are the top 1% individual income thresholds by state:

StateTop 1% Income
Alabama$325,000
Alaska$300,165
Arizona$350,011
Arkansas$350,400
California$330,150
Colorado$370,000
Connecticut$419,779
Delaware$250,780
District of Columbia$726,412
Florida$327,681
Georgia$370,700
Hawaii$252,860
Idaho$300,506
Illinois$415,011
Indiana$384,425
Iowa$280,802
Kansas$330,000
Kentucky$366,000
Louisiana$310,100
Maine$386,100
Maryland$502,623
Massachusetts$456,475
Michigan$552,025
Minnesota$420,500
Mississippi$286,000
Missouri$312,451
Montana$269,281
Nebraska$325,020
Nevada$272,351
New Hampshire$400,220
New Jersey$408,871
New Mexico$250,900
New York$382,050
North Carolina$270,000
North Dakota$280,000
Ohio$285,002
Oklahoma$317,500
Oregon$411,151
Pennsylvania$411,001
Rhode Island$305,450
South Carolina$320,000
South Dakota$283,189
Tennessee$300,500
Texas$366,390
Utah$307,005
Vermont$322,050
Virginia$368,455
Washington$311,000
West Virginia$289,005
Wisconsin$279,600
Wyoming$222,287

Individual Income by State Methodology and Estimated Households

Like for household incomes, I use microdata from the ASEC survey harmonized by the University of Minnesota to compute individual incomes.

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles, J. Robert Warren and Michael Westberry. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 9.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2021. https://doi.org/10.18128/D030.V9.0

Here, I only count "workers." For more on the worker screen, see our average individual income article.

Individual Income by State Data Quality and Estimated Workforce

As with households, it's good to know how many samples you're looking at for individual workers. This table lists the number of samples plus the estimated number of workers per state.

StateEstimated WorkersSamples
Alabama         2,379,050          1,596
Alaska            369,799             975
Arizona         3,981,882          1,450
Arkansas         1,460,344          1,330
California       20,719,219          8,340
Colorado         3,352,880          1,187
Connecticut         1,883,174             817
Delaware            520,409             876
District of Columbia            448,907          1,374
Florida       11,187,448          3,914
Georgia         5,626,176          1,986
Hawaii            727,916          1,351
Idaho            987,786          1,546
Illinois         6,822,417          2,381
Indiana         3,538,126          1,288
Iowa         1,769,951          1,010
Kansas         1,627,356          1,133
Kentucky         2,251,718             924
Louisiana         2,231,553          1,864
Maine            765,727             572
Maryland         3,347,382          1,138
Massachusetts         4,052,487          1,799
Michigan         5,092,141          1,838
Minnesota         3,197,185          1,188
Mississippi         1,409,345          1,381
Missouri         3,276,304          1,182
Montana            581,187          1,367
Nebraska         1,125,587          1,192
Nevada         1,695,183          1,276
New Hampshire            783,629          1,037
New Jersey         4,871,478          1,664
New Mexico            994,354          1,416
New York       10,015,170          3,089
North Carolina         5,454,280          1,996
North Dakota            427,842          1,335
Ohio         6,112,247          1,888
Oklahoma         1,983,686          1,307
Oregon         2,289,158          1,504
Pennsylvania         6,847,845          2,100
Rhode Island            624,249             738
South Carolina         2,655,277          1,356
South Dakota            514,410             977
Tennessee         3,620,583          1,558
Texas       15,069,014          5,086
Utah         1,723,177          1,455
Vermont            358,169          1,028
Virginia         4,778,983          1,729
Washington         4,328,573          1,778
West Virginia            847,815          1,322
Wisconsin         3,411,418          1,192
Wyoming            318,182          1,137

Diving Deep on State Incomes

Hard to visualize these distributions in your head? Yeah – there's a lot to parse in this one. Check out the income percentile by state calculator for help. You can compare states head to head for household income and individual income and choose to show or hide states to see the info you need.

And one more caveat: while income by state is a decent measure to disaggregate income stats, it still comes up short with "superstar" ("superexpensive"?) cities.

For example, an income in Humboldt County, California would not go as far in the San Francisco Bay Area. Check out the income percentile by city post for a deeper dive on metro areas.

See past data:

      

PK

PK started DQYDJ in 2009 to research and discuss finance and investing and help answer financial questions. He's expanded DQYDJ to build visualizations, calculators, and interactive tools.

PK is in his mid-30s and works and lives in the Bay Area with his wife, two kids, and dog.

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